The features of data journalism

Data journalism looks like a new strategy, but it has been used many years. The first example of using data journalism is about the predicting the outcome with a mainframe computer of presidential election in 1952.

Data journalism includes six main Areas covered such as Computer assisted reporting, Infographics, Data visualization, Interactive visualization, Database journalism.

For example, Computer-assisted reporting is that journalists and other people gather and analyze the information to editor news through computers.  Infographics are that complex knowledge, information and data are presented through graphic visual,  this method is beneficial to understand information by readers more easily.
Data can be the resource for data journalism. An example is Las Vegas Sun’s 2010 Do No Harm series on hospital care. Journalists analysed  2.9 million records and 3600 cases in hospital to provide clear data for readers. It obtained a real impact which is six pieces of legislation by Nevada legislature.

 

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Data also can be the tool to find a story.

Such as “Murder Mysteries” project of the Scripps Howard News ServiceTom Hargrove built a demographically-detailed database which focuses on 185,000 unsolved murders, after that he designed a model to present the possible presence of serial killers.

Thus, data is method to improve the developments of journalism and an opportunity for journalists. For the one hand, journalists can through a great deal of data information to predict the tendency of developing something and check the truth of information. For the other hand, it can transfer abstract information to something which people can understand.

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The impacts of Media and News Platforms

Today, meida usually report that using internet and social media increases the risks of withdrawal, isolation and alienation. However, for our lives, the popularity of social media is beneficial to increase civic engagement, sociability and the intensity of family and friendship relationships.

According to much research, social media possesses can promote people to partcipate in public activities and engagement the process of democratizing public life when they live in a networked world.

For the one hand, in today, the internet and social media are both as the power methods to mobilize people. Some websites use pictures and words to deepen, harden or affirm the original emotions of users. Through this way, those websites has played an inportant role in recently outbreaks of social protese and resistance. For instance, The mushrooming of Occupy protests, the Arab Spring, the social media provide significant assistance for the mobilization of resistance which against the Government of the Ukraine or in Hong Kong.

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On the other hand, one of the most important affect of network is that it has huge influence for the lives of teenagers such as the online dating and online language. More and more men and women are to communicate with stangers and built a relationship on online because the social media can provides more alternative people and their details for users. In addition, the interaction between the virtual and the real is a new situation in contemporary live style for teenagers.

Moreover, the evoluion of texting and online communication is a interesting feature to promot the development of the culture. Some new rituals and symbols have been created by young people for convenient communication.

 

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The development of digital audiences

PJ_15.04.28_FSA-DigiNewsAud.jpgAdvanced digital technology supplies a opportunity for users to become more powerful participants instead of  silent spectators or passive audiences.

For instance, comparing with traditional audiences, digital audiences can immediately receive information. They alternatively receive news based on their personal hobbies.  They also can share the information with other people. Furthermore, they are able to comment information and discuss with editors and other audiences.  In addition, audiences can publish news, arts and music by themselves.

Therefore, an increasing number of people have chosen digital sources to receive news. According to a 2016 Pew Research Center survey, in America, nearly 40% adults usually get news from digital sources such as apps, social networking sites and news websites. The proportion is higher than audiences who still use radio (25%) and print newspaper (20%).

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For example, in 2012, only 17% US adults used social media to find out the presidential election, but 65% US adults knew the 2016 presidential election through digital sources, and 48% of them used news sites or apps and 44% used social networking sites.

According to those data, we can find that news sites and apps are more popular than networking sites. The reason is that the main users of digital audiences are teenagers, they use mobile phones more frequent than computers. Thus, more and more publishers have developed mobile apps to satisfy their requirements. According to Kristine Lu and Jesse Holcomb, they find that among the 40 publishers, 25 had created a mobile app of some sort.

 

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Low Quality On Social Media Posts

Social media has become important, so the number of journalists who use digital media to report news have increased. However, at the same time, the reliability of the social media posts is suspected. In order to obtained a wide responses of readers, journalists uses a lot interesting topic but low quality news.

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Journalists do less fact-checking when they report news on online. Nearly 33% of journalists believe that the social media posts are not creditable, but 50% of them still use those posts as the main source of information.

A new motto is  ‘publish first, correct if necessary’. There are only 20% of journalists who check their news before publishing on social media. Many journalists think that quick publishing posts is more important than checking the facts. Generally, they publish the news at first, then they will change the content if it leads to something negative effacts.

In addition, the journalists rules on social media lacks supervision compared with traditional media. Thus, sharing private opinion of journalists has become a popular on online.

Moreover, journalists pay more attention to the click rate, than caring the quality of posts. For example, they choose and use those exaggerated titles to attract the audiences.

According to the current social media environment, propagating right rules to improve the reliability of social media posts is necessary, for example, emphasizing the importance of fact-checking and reducing the expressing the personal view of jouranlists. Furthermore, traditional media and social media should have the same platform of rules and regulations on journalists.

 

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Technology affects consumption model of culture

Letter and newspaper were two main modes of transmission before developing internet. Thus, because transfering information was limited by region and time, the distant and spread of cultural communication was confined and slow.

Today, through facebook, instagram or weibo users can share information by anywhere and anytime. Therefore, the consumption pattern of culture has changed in the internet age. with an increasing number people, especially young people, who trends to stay at home can download or stream  information on online.

Gary Vaynerchuk says that social media is “the single most important thing in the world”.

16722810_421482878188459_7301550489193949943_o-1030x592Due to the enormous users in internet, social media has more influence than traditional media. Therefore, more creators choose the online publishing as the main method to propagate their products such as music, photograph and films. On the one hand, it can bring a high income job. on the other hand, it can also obtain the effective publicity effect propagate in the short time.

For the publishers, they can immediately update and recall information. A better customer service can be achieved by technology.  for example, it can improve audience engagement and generate innovative ideas.

Facing the developing technology, Bruce Daisley, EMEA Vice President of Twitter
reiterated that “practical steps to create your individual voice.” through social platfotms is the main challenge.

For the audiences, internet provides the opportunity to immediately and unprecedentedly access the culture. In addition, they can choose product by their hobby, for instance,  world news, latest celebrity gossip or just a picture of your cat.

 

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Journalism is influenced by audience

Audiences play an important role to support the development of news industry. A quarter of total income of journalism is through subscriptions.

Audiences mainly focus on interesting topic, thus they will only purchase the issue of journal that they interested.

Jean Min said ” the audience is the content “. This means that the requirements of audience will directly decide the content and types of news that are reported.

A large number of audiences pay more attention to entertainment news such as the privacies of stars. Thus, the critical journalism about politics and society cannot attract their interest. In their perspective, those critical reports are irrelevant to their lives. On the other hand, even they know the issues of governments through websites and TV programs, they are powerless for alleviating or solving those problems.

Hence, numbers of media companies and journalists started to revise their news releases and increase entertainment content in order to cater for their audience. 24SWIFT-master768

The responses of readers are important for journalism, especially they are the one who provides the fund for the development of news industry. However, journalism should not mainly focus of the information which audience interested, but also try to indicate the facts which readers should know. The content of news reports also should be decided by the editors and journalists. They should make sure that reporting those information is not senseless.

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Providing service of Personalization by technology  

Joao Romao said that personalise news experience can be provided by technology, it analyses related factors such as reading history location, interests and time available of consumers  to decide which information are users need. So, it can assist users easily to find information.

However, users are limited by this technology. When you research information on some search engines such as google, the results on the website are chosen by the system. For example, individual has different interests, social environment and search history which are recorded in search engines, thus the results may completely different even though two people put some key words on the google. Unfortunately, this technology restricts the probability of finding more information.

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Due to convenient, many people linked the same account among various website ,  for example, Facebook, google account. Information are easily leaked when the information in one of these websites are hacked because the personal details are connected among different applications or websites.

For media companies, this is a useful way to increase users by applying technology. In addition, Joao Romao expresses that some companies gain tremendous income from this innovation. Peter Bernstein said that if customers have more well-formed of  information, through evaluating those information, organizations can easily  judge who is the potential customers and provide them a personal service .

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